Nature News

Diskutera fysik, kemi, biologi, samt direkta tillämpningar såsom teknik och medicin.

Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » ons 01 aug 2018, 15:51

Nature skriver om EU:S beslut angående CRISPR/Cas9 när det gäller växter, och möjliga följder.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05814-6
Gene-edited crops should be subject to the same stringent regulations as conventional genetically modified (GM) organisms, Europe’s highest court ruled on 25 July.

The decision, handed down by the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) in Luxembourg, is a major setback for proponents of gene-edited crops, including many scientists. They had hoped that organisms created using relatively new, precise gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR–Cas9 would be exempted from existing European law that has limited the planting and sale of GM crops.

Instead, the ECJ ruled that crops created using these technologies are subject to a 2001 directive. That law was developed for older breeding techniques, and it imposes high hurdles for developing GM crops for food.

“It is an important judgment, and it’s a very rigid judgment,” says Kai Purnhagen, a legal scholar at Wageningen University and Research in the Netherlands who specializes in European and international law. “It means for all the new inventions such as CRISPR–Cas9 food, you would need to go through the lengthy approval process of the European Union.”

That is likely to hinder investment in crop research using these tools in the EU, says Purnhagen. “From a practical perspective, I don’t think this will be at all of interest for business. So they will move somewhere else,” he says.


Detta är intressant:
But in its ruling, the ECJ determined that only mutagenesis techniques that have “conventionally been used in a number of applications and have a long safety record are exempt from those obligations”. Organisms made using mutagenesis techniques developed after 2001 — including gene editing — are not exempt from the directive.


För mig veterligen är det inte bevisat att gamla metoder är "ofarligare" än nya. Detta beslut lär endast gynna USA och Kina, och jag misstänker att detta kommer att bita oss i svansen om ett antal år när nya grödor utvecklas utanför EU, och vi kommer att få betala stora pengar om vi vill använda dem.
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » fre 17 aug 2018, 15:09

Nu har det första läkemedlet baserat på "gene silencing", dvs nedtystning an gener, godkänts av FDA in USA. Det är faktiskt rätt häftigt.


Att man alls lyckas utveckla ett läkemedel är också häftigt.
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05867-7
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » mån 20 aug 2018, 16:58

Så, nu sitter jag vid en riktig dator, och kan försöka lägga in lite mer textstycken från artikeln. Detta handlar alltså om det första läkemedlet som baseras på en teknik att "tysta" gener. Denna är baserad på RNA interferens RNAi.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_interference

Upptäckten av RNAi resulterade i Nobelpris i medicin 2006. Man har haft stora förhoppningar på att kunna använda denna teknik för medicinska behandlringar. Men. Som så ofta så har det visat sig vara svårare än vad man trodde (eller kanske snarare hoppades). Det var en del tekniska svårigheter, som man tar upp i artikeln:

But to make RNAi into medicine, developers would first need to determine how to deliver delicate molecules of RNA safely to their target organs. They needed a way to shield the RNA from degradation in the bloodstream, prevent it from being filtered out by the kidneys, and allow it to exit blood vessels and spread through tissues. “That proved to be a substantially harder problem than we anticipated,” says Douglas Fambrough, chief executive of Dicerna, an RNAi-focused company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


Den aktuella medicinen används mot en relativt sällsynt sjukdom-.

Patisiran works by silencing the gene that underlies a rare disease called hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis. In that illness, mutated forms of the protein transthyretin accumulate in the body, sometimes impairing heart and nerve function.


Kostnaden för ett års behandling beräknas tydligen till 450 000 dollar, om man ska tro denna artikel.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles ... ic-disease
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » tis 21 aug 2018, 16:33

Man har lyckats hitta en transkiptionsfaktor som kan effektivisera upptaget av kväve i grödor som framställdes under "gröna revolutionen". Detta skulle möjligen kunna leda till att man skulle kunna minska på behovet av gödsling med kväve om man kan förädla dessa grödor.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05928-x

mproved nutrient use gives cereal crops a boost

The green revolution of the mid-twentieth century saw the development of high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat for use in agriculture. But to produce high yields, these green-revolution varieties require a large supply of nitrogen. Developing green-revolution varieties that use nitrogen more efficiently is an important goal for sustainable crop breeding. In a paper in Nature, Li et al.1 report a previously unknown function for the rice transcription factor OsGRF4 in nitrogen use. By modulating the OsGRF4 gene, the researchers produced plants that use nitrogen efficiently and have a high yield.
Manipulation of the transcription factor OsGRF4 can improve the efficiency with which some high-yielding cereal crops use nitrogen. This discovery has implications for sustainable agriculture.
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » fre 31 aug 2018, 13:08

I Japan så har man tydligen föreslagit att Japan inte ska införa reglering av "genediterade organismer" eller vad man ska säga på svenska. Det innebär att man inte skulle låt organismer modifierade med Crspr/Cas9 omfattas av regelverk för GMO.

www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06041-9
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Ebolamediciner

Inläggav Tryggve » sön 02 sep 2018, 10:55

Man testar tre olika läkemedel för behandling av Ebola i det senaste utbrottet. Pågående konflikter i området gör det extra svårt. Nu ska man utforma riktiga protokoll för behandlingarna.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06132-7

Experimental Ebola drugs face tough test in war zone

Researchers are devising a clinical-trial protocol to test three medicines in Africa's latest outbreak.

Health workers fighting the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have given nearly 20 people experimental drugs to treat the virus since mid-August. But because the drugs have been dispensed on a case-by-case, ‘compassionate use’ basis, it is hard to know whether any are effective. Now, desperate to determine which therapy works best, researchers from the DRC and US governments, the World Health Organization and other groups are meeting this week to plan a clinical trial that will compare multiple drugs as the outbreak continues.

For ethical reasons, the trial scientists say they do not intend to give any study participants a placebo. Instead, they hope to compare the two experimental medicines now in use to ZMapp, an antibody therapy that showed promise in limited tests three years ago during a major Ebola epidemic in West Africa1. Patients in the coming trial would receive one of these three drugs at random. The study design draws on a flexible clinical-trial framework that the WHO expects to unveil early next week. The framework is intended for use in multiple Ebola outbreaks, to produce data that can be pooled over time.

The scientists working on the DRC trial hope to launch the effort in the coming weeks. “A clinical trial will give us the scientific evidence we need,” says Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, director-general of the National Institute for Biomedical Research in Kinshasa, which will lead the study.

But planning for the trial is complicated by the realities of working in a conflict zone: the DRC’s North Kivu and Ituri provinces, where fighting has killed more than 5 million people over the past two decades. Instability in the region could prevent clinicians from giving patients repeated infusions of drugs and collecting the biochemical data that a trial would require. “We can’t control what happens around a treatment centre,” Muyembe-Tamfum says. “Armed groups can do what they want.”



De tre behandlingar som man ska testa är:

Zmapp- användes vid förra utbrottet. Är väl den som visat mest lovande resultat.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZMapp

mAb114
Detta har framställts från antikroppar som isolerades från en patient som insjuknande i ebola 1995, och som tillfrisknade.

remdesivir ett antiviralt preparat.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remdesivir
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » tis 04 sep 2018, 10:20

Det verkar som om en grupp av forskningsfinansiärer inom EU tänker införa nya regler för hur de som får anslag ska publicera dina resultat. Inom två år måste det vara i tidskrifter som är tillgängliga för alla, och inte kräver prenumereration.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06178-7
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konst

Inläggav Tryggve » sön 16 sep 2018, 11:02

Nature skriver om "världens äldsta teckning", som man anser är 73 000 år gammal.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06664-y

Sometime in the Stone Age, human artists began experimenting with a new form of visual art: drawing. Now, from the ancient rubble that accumulated on the floor of a South African cave comes the earliest-known example — an abstract, crayon-on-stone piece created about 73,000 years ago.

“If there is any point at which one can say that symbolic activity had emerged in human society, this is it,” says Paul Pettitt, an archaeologist at Durham University, UK, who was not involved in the discovery. The find is described in a paper published on 12 September in in Nature1.

Prehistoric people (Homo sapiens) lived in and around South Africa’s Blombos Cave between 100,000 and 72,000 years ago. Earlier excavations had already indicated that they were an arty bunch: archaeologists have uncovered beads at the site fashioned from sea-snail shells, as well as pieces of bone and chunks of ochre — a clay mineral rich in iron oxide — engraved with geometric patterns.
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Re: Nature News

Inläggav Tryggve » fre 28 sep 2018, 17:15

Kul att Nature skriver om detta, det är inte ett problem enbart i Sveriget tydligen. Jag vet för egen del inte hur många jobb inom universitet/högskola som jag har sökt där det visat sig att jobbet redan har varit tillsatt, och personen i fråga ska söka sin tjänst. Det rör sig om flera tiotal, i alla fall. Framför allt så är det ett ofantligt slöseri med folks tid.

Nu är väl skälen olika för Sverige och exemplen i artikeln, iofs.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06774-7

Job vacancies posted after being filled: it’s time to stop wasting everyone’s time

Misleading advertisements for academic jobs are infuriating for everyone. Can we stop them?

After years of competing for temporary postdoc or teaching contracts, working hard to build a robust publication record and broadening our skill sets with leadership activities, it’s impossible for junior academics not to be excited by an advertisement for the ‘dream job’ — a tenure-track university professorship.

Until, of course, we look at the job posting closely enough to realize that the position has already been awarded to someone. It was only advertised to comply with national immigration laws, which in many countries state that a position can be filled by a foreign national only once the opportunity has first been offered to citizens for a certain period. In Canada, for example, in a case of ‘equal competency’, a Canadian should be the preferred applicant. But, for us, ‘equal competency’ is an impossible metric to measure.

We believe that most job postings for tenure-track positions are legitimate, fair, transparent and open to all who are qualified. And so it’s a difficult pill to swallow when you have proof that a job posting is there just to tick a checkbox, with no intention to hire behind it. Every application for such a posting represents a complete waste of time for both interested applicants and the employer — the job has already been filled.

We recognize that the practice of targeting someone for a specific position is common in all walks of life. But at universities, this practice risks discriminating against younger researchers, especially those without connections to high-profile research groups or universities — who might be seen and favoured less by the hiring committee — on top of unfairly wasting all other applicants’ time.
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