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Re: Nature News

Postat: tis 08 dec 2015, 15:03
av Tryggve
Här rapporteras om att det råder brist på agar, något som är viktigt inom mikrobiologi, men även andra områden.

Ämnet agar utvinns från vissa alger.

Det används för att tillverka agarplattor, något som används mycket inom mikrobiologi och andra områden. Mest för att odla bakterier och andra mikroorganismer. Det används också en hel del inom sjukvården.

Bristen beror (sägs det) på ny lagstiftning som har införts för att förhindra att man skördar för mycket av dessa typer av alger. ... NatureNews

Lab staple agar hit by seaweed shortage

Dwindling algae harvest imperils reagent essential for culturing microbes.

Microbiology’s most important reagent is in short supply, with potential consequences for research, public health and clinical labs around the world.

Agar — the seaweed-derived, gelatinous substance that biologists use to culture microbes — is experiencing a global downturn, marine biologists, agar producers and industry analysts told Nature. “There’s not enough seaweed for everyone, so basically we are now reducing our production,” says Pedro Sanchez, deputy managing director of Industrias Roko in Polígono de Silvota, Spain, which processes seaweed to make some 40% of the world’s agar.

The shortage can be traced to newly enforced trade restrictions on the seaweed, arising from environmental concerns that the algae are being overharvested. It is unclear how deeply the dearth will hit researchers, but it has already pushed wholesale prices of agar to an all-time high of around US$35–45 per kilogram — nearly triple the price before scarcities began. Individual researchers, who buy packaged agar from lab-supply companies, can pay many times this amount.

Re: Nature News

Postat: tis 22 dec 2015, 12:28
av Tryggve
En artikel om CRISPR-Cas9-metoden, och att man inom EU utreder huruvida detta ska räknas som GMO eller ej. En svensk forskare, Stefan Jansson är en av de som vill ha detta prövat. ... bo-1.19028

Europe’s genetically edited plants stuck in legal limbo

Scientists frustrated at delay in deciding if GM regulations apply to precision gene editing.

Plant geneticist Stefan Jansson is champing at the bit to start field trials on crops tweaked with powerful gene-editing technologies. He plans to begin by using edits to study how the cress plant Arabidopsis protects its photosynthetic machinery from damage in excessively bright light.

But the future of his work depends on the European Commission’s answer to a legal conundrum. Should it regulate a gene-edited plant that has no foreign DNA as a genetically modified (GM) organism?

Jansson, who works at Umeå University in Sweden, says that he will drop his experiments if the plants are classed as GM, because Europe’s onerous regulations would make his work too expensive and slow. He and many others are anxiously awaiting the commission’s decision, which will dictate how they approach experiments using the latest gene-editing techniques, including the popular CRISPR–Cas9 method.

The commission has repeatedly stalled on delivering its verdict, which will apply to edited animals and microorganisms as well as plants. It now says that it will make its legal analysis public by the end of March. Swedish authorities, meanwhile, have told Jansson that unless the commission specifies otherwise, they will not require his cress to be subject to GM regulations.
Om lagstiftningen idag:
At issue is the interpretation of a 2001 European Commission directive on releasing GM organisms into the environment, which covers field trials and cultivation. It defines GM organisms as having alterations that cannot occur naturally, which were made by genetic engineering.

What is unclear is how this relates to experiments, such as Jansson’s, in which researchers introduce foreign DNA to direct a precise edit in a plant’s own genetic material but then use selective breeding to remove the foreign gene. The final plant has a few tweaked nucleotides, but cannot be distinguished from a wild plant that might have acquired the same mutation naturally — so it cannot be traced in the environ­ment as EU regulations require.

Re: Nature News

Postat: mån 28 dec 2015, 22:25
av PetterW
Tryggve skrev:En artikel om CRISPR-Cas9-metoden, och att man inom EU utreder huruvida detta ska räknas som GMO eller ej. En svensk forskare, Stefan Jansson är en av de som vill ha detta prövat.
Oklart hur långtgående Jordbruksverkets beslut är, men de verkar ha fått GO på de mutanter som ansökan gällde. Vad sedan EU beslutar återstår väl att se, men det är en viktig kommentar som Stefan Jansson gör

"The particular case only affects our basic research on the mechanisms of photosynthetic light harvesting, but this interpretation opens up the possibility that this technique can be used to address some of the biggest challenges for mankind, expressed in the sustainable development goals recently suggested by the United Nations." ... a-gmo.html

Det känns som det är dags för EU att släppa sargen och se GM som den nyttiga teknik den faktiskt är, oavsett om det sker genom CRISPR-Cas9 eller någon annan metod.

Crispr: the good, the bad and the unknown.

Postat: ons 24 feb 2016, 12:57
av Tryggve
Nature verkar ha samlat rätt många artiklar om Crispr-tekniken. Vet inte om man kan kalla det för specialfokus, eller något liknande.
Det mesta verkar gå att komma åt utan att ha en prenumeration, men jag kan inte påstå att jag har kollat upp alla artiklar.

Publicering på nätet

Postat: ons 24 feb 2016, 19:29
av Tryggve
Nature skriver om en grupp i USA som forskar på Zikaviruset. De studerar apor som infekterats med viruset, och de publicerar inte sina data i en tidsskrift, utan online. Kontinuerligt.

En intressant grej, och lovande för möjligheten för forskargrupper att samarbeta vid utbrott av sjukdomar. Inspirationen till detta ska ha varit Ebolautbrottet. ... ys-1.19438
Zika monkey study chronicled online in real time

Raw data from macaque experiment published daily online.

Researchers in the United States who have infected monkeys with Zika virus made their first data public last week. But instead of publishing them in a journal, they have released them online for anyone to view — and are updating their results day by day.

The team is posting raw data on the amount of virus detected in the blood, saliva and urine of three Indian rhesus macaques, which they injected with Zika on 15 February. “This is the first time that our group has made data available in real time,” says David O’Connor, a virologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a leader of the project, whose scientists have dubbed themselves ZEST (the Zika experimental-science team). He hopes that releasing the data will help to speed up research into the nature of the virus that has spread across the Americas.

Although a few teams have begun to share genomic data online during disease outbreaks, instant open-data release remains the exception rather than the rule, particularly in clinical research. O’Connor says that he was inspired by researchers during the Ebola epidemic who rapidly published genomic-sequencing data online and encouraged others to re-analyse them. At the time, O'Connor's group downloaded raw data shared by a team led by Pardis Sabeti, a computational geneticist at the Broad Institute and Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts; it immediately helped to advance their own Ebola research, he says, and led to a collaboration with Sabeti's group.

Framtrida generationer

Postat: ons 24 feb 2016, 21:38
av Tryggve
Jag hittade en fokus på framtiden. Framtida generationer. Hur kommer det att se ut, och hur kommer människorna att förändras.

Går det ens att förutsäga hur välden kommer att se ut om några årtionden?
Future generations

A special issue examines whether researchers today consider the world of tomorrow — and why they should.

The effects on distant tomorrows of the decisions we make today have never been greater. As we change our planet, ourselves and, potentially, our descendants, in ever more dramatic ways, this issue of Nature takes stock: do we have the brains and the tools to understand and account for the future and, if not, what should be done?

Technology experts foresee a world just a few decades away that is so radically different from today that it is hard to comprehend. The exponential rate of progress in a suite of enabling technologies, ranging from computer-processing power to communication, could drive drastic changes in artificial intelligence, robotics, molecular biology and more (see page 398).

Some think that the people who inhabit this world might also be irrevocably altered, for the first time, by genetic engineering. The arrival of the powerful genome-editing technology CRISPR–Cas9 might prevent children from being born with some deadly disorders or disabilities, and a feature on page 402 discusses the extent to which this is possible and desirable.

Forecasting is hard and fraught with bias. For example, as Nicholas Stern warns on page 407, current models of climate economics implicitly assume that lives in the future are less important than those today — a value judgement that is rarely scrutinized and difficult to defend. And, as Celine Kermisch writes on page 383, near and remote future generations have very different needs. Hundreds of social-science studies highlight the tensions between our tendencies to care about the well-being of others yet to favour current benefits over future ones. Therefore, on page 413, behavioural economists Helga Fehr-Duda and Ernst Fehr call for the design of sustainable-development policies and schemes that exploit these evolved behaviours.

Ebolaantikropp testad

Postat: fre 26 feb 2016, 14:04
av Tryggve
Här finns en artikel om att man har isolerat antikroppar från en man som var sjuk i Ebola 1995 och som tillfrisknade. Det som gör detta speciellt är väl att dessa antikroppar, som döpts till mAb114, verkar vara väldigt potenta. När man har gett dem till apor som infekterats med ebola så överlevde dessa.

Studien publiceras i tidskriften Science. I två artiklar. ... nt-1.19440

Ebola survivor’s blood holds promise of new treatment

Antibody from man who survived infection from 1995 outbreak shows potent effect against deadly virus.

he blood of a man who survived an Ebola outbreak nearly 20 years ago is helping scientists to develop a treatment against the disease.

The survivor produced some of the strongest protective proteins, or antibodies, against Ebola found so far, researchers report in two papers published today in the journal Science1, 2. One of these antibodies, dubbed mAb114, is capable of saving monkeys infected with Ebola.

“It’s really stunning that a single antibody can protect against Ebola,” says Nancy Sullivan, a viral immunologist at the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, who led the research identifying the antibody.

The antibody donor, identified only as “subject 1”, became severely ill with Ebola in 1995, during an outbreak of the virus in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. After weeks battling the disease, subject 1 recovered and went back to the Ebola wards to help care for other patients.

Eleven years later, scientists drew his blood and isolated the mAb114 antibody. In subsequent tests, the purified antibody saved the lives in of six infected monkeys. Some of the animals recovered despite not receiving treatment until five days after infection. Only one other potential Ebola treatment has proved as powerful in animal studies: the antibody cocktail known as ZMapp.
Search for treatments

ZMapp and other similar drugs have been given to more than 80 patients during the Ebola outbreak. On 23 February, researchers reported the results of a clinical trial involving 71 of those patients. Thirty-six people were given ZMapp and 78% of them survived, compared with 63% of patients who did not receive the drug.
EDIT: länk till artiklarna i Science (kräver prenumeration)

1 ... l.pdf+html?

2: ... ce.aad6117

Syntetiska möss. Eller något liknande....

Postat: lör 27 feb 2016, 20:08
av Tryggve
Kinesiska forskare hävdar att de har skapat syntetiska musspermier, och att dessa har använts för att befrukta ägg från möss. De möss som har fötts på detta sätt sägs vara friska och normala.

Alla forskare är dock inte övertygade. Man kan väl anta att detta kommer att granskas hårt.
Researchers claim to have made artificial mouse sperm in a dish

But some scientists are not convinced by the report.

Researchers in China say that they have discovered a way to make rudimentary mouse sperm in a dish, and used them to produce offspring.

If the claim stands up to scrutiny, it could point the way to making human sperm in the lab for fertility treatments. But some scientists are not convinced by the report, which is published today in Cell Stem Cell1.

“The results are super-exciting and important,” says Jacob Hanna, a stem-cell scientist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. But Takashi Shinohara, a reproductive biologist at Kyoto University in Japan, is among researchers who have doubts about the work: he notes that scientists have struggled to replicate several previous claims that sperm can be made in a dish.

Re: Nature News

Postat: tis 19 apr 2016, 17:35
av Tryggve
Jag hittade den här artikeln nu på Nature. Det verkar som om en prionsjukdom, CDW, har hittats i vildren i Norge. Sjukdomen har (om jag förstår detta rätt) enbart varit känd i Nordamerika och Sydkorea tidigare. Då hos älg, hjort och rådjur. Den ska inte vara farlig för människor.

Det verkar finnas många frågetecken här. Dels om sjukdomen verkligen är korrekt identifierad, och om så är fallet, hur den har spridits till Europa. Och om detta är det enda fallet, eller om det finns många som man har missat.

Sjukdomen verkar vara mycket smittsam, också, om jag förstår detta rätt. Låter ju inget vidare. ... pe-1.19759
Deadly animal prion disease appears in Europe

How brain disorder related to mad-cow disease spread to Norway is a mystery.

A highly contagious and deadly animal brain disorder has been detected in Europe for the first time. Scientists are now warning that the single case found in a wild reindeer might represent an unrecognized, widespread infection.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was thought to be restricted to deer, elk (Cervus canadensis) and moose (Alces alces) in North America and South Korea, but on 4 April researchers announced that the disease had been discovered in a free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway. This is both the first time that CWD has been found in Europe and the first time that it has been found in this species in the wild anywhere in the world.

“It’s worrying — of course, especially for animals. It’s a nasty disease,” says Sylvie Benestad, an animal-disease researcher at the Norwegian Veterinary Institute in Oslo who, along with colleague Turid Vikøren, diagnosed the diseased reindeer.

A key question now is whether this is a rare — even unique — case, or if the disease is widespread but so far undetected in Europe.

“If it’s similar to our prion disease in the United States and Canada, the disease is subtle and it would be easy to miss,” says Christina Sigurdson, a pathologist at the University of California, San Diego, who has shown that reindeer can contract CWD in a laboratory environment1.
Mysterious origins
Like both bovine spongiform encephalopathy — also known as mad-cow disease — and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, CWD occurs when cellular proteins called prions bend into an abnormal shape, inducing neighbouring, healthy proteins to do the same. The misfolded proteins aggregate in the brain and sometimes in other tissue, causing weight loss, coordination problems and behaviour changes. There is no cure or vaccine; as far as scientists know, CWD is always fatal.

Although the disease is not known to be transmissible to humans, it is highly contagious among deer, elk and related animals, which can shed infectious misfolded prion proteins in their saliva, urine and faeces. Animals infected with CWD have been found in more than 20 states in the United States and 2 provinces in Canada. The disease has also been detected in captive animals in South Korea, which imported CWD with a shipment of live elk brought into the country for farming in the late 1990s.

Re: Nature News

Postat: tis 19 apr 2016, 18:07
av micke.d
Bådar inte gott för älgstammen om detta stämmer.

Re: Nature News

Postat: tis 19 apr 2016, 19:28
av Tryggve
micke.d skrev:Bådar inte gott för älgstammen om detta stämmer.
Precis. Och jag antar att även rådjur och renar kan drabbas....

Det finns för övrigt en wikiartikel om sjukdomen. De finns tydligen på en del ställen i USA och Kanada, och man har försökt begränsa spridning därifrån.

Re: Nature News

Postat: sön 01 maj 2016, 12:40
av Tryggve
Här finns en artikel där man har upptäckt att transfusion med antikroppar verkar ge apor skydd mot infektion av ett virus som är likt HIV. Detta virus är, om jag förstår det rätt, ett sk chimärvruis som är framtaget just för denna typ av försök. Det verkar som om transfusionen ger skydd i flera månader mot infektion av viruset.
Man menar att denna teknik i framtiden möjligen skulle kunna användas för att ge människor ett temporärt skydd mot HIV, i alla fall innan det finns ett vaccin. ... on-1.19832

Antibody infusions provide long-term defence against HIV-like infection

Specialized proteins can protect monkeys against the virus for months.

A single infusion of antibodies can protect monkeys from infection with a virus that is similar to HIV for nearly six months.

The finding provides further evidence that antibodies — specialized proteins that the body produces to fight infections — could one day be used as a method to prevent people from becoming infected with HIV.

“A caveat is that monkeys are not humans, but the model the authors use is about as good as it gets, and the results are a boost to HIV vaccine research and the use of passive antibodies as long-acting preventives,” said immunologist Dennis Burton of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, who was not involved with the work.

esearchers have struggled to produce an effective vaccine against HIV, and the scientists behind this study say that administering periodic doses of antibodies might provide a stopgap measure while vaccine research continues. “This might turn out to be a seasonal alternative to a vaccine until we really know how to make one,” says HIV researcher Malcolm Martin of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, who led the work.
Long-term protection

Previous studies had found that antibodies derived from HIV-infected people can drastically reduce the amount of HIV in an infected person’s blood for short periods of time. Researchers have also found that antibodies given one or two days before monkeys were exposed to an HIV-like virus prevented them from becoming infected.

Re: Nature News

Postat: sön 01 maj 2016, 15:30
av ttias
Det finns väl redan nu profylax med några månaders verkan?

Re: Nature News

Postat: sön 01 maj 2016, 17:50
av Tryggve
ttias skrev:Det finns väl redan nu profylax med några månaders verkan?
Det gör det kanske, det är mer än jag vet. Vet du vilken typ av virus det rör sig om.

Det finns ju en del behandlingar mot tex kolera, men det rör sig väl inte om behandling med antikroppar i sig.

Re: Nature News

Postat: tor 02 jun 2016, 16:20
av manifesto
Tryggve eller någon annan med access får gärna summera artikeln.